In recent years, intensive research has been carried out on the use of hydrogels obtained from natural polymers, mainly chitosan. These products are increasingly replacing solutions based on synthetic materials in medicine. This publication presents the results of studies on the sol-gel transition of chitosan solutions as the base material for the preparation of thermosensitive hydrogels for potential applications in tissue engineering. The measurements were carried out for systems consisting of chitosan lactate and chitosan chloride solutions using β-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate and uridine 5′-monophosphate disodium salt as the cross-linking agents. The sol-gel transition point of the solutions was determined based on the rheological measurements in the cone-plate configuration of the rotational rheometer and experiments performed using the method of nuclear magnetic resonance. The obtained results showed a significant influence of the cross-linking agent on the course of the sol-gel transition of chitosan salt solutions, and the systems that consisted of chitosan lactate seemed to be especially interesting for biomedical applications.