MXene nanoflakes decorating ZnO tetrapods for enhanced performance of skin-attachable stretchable enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor

Publish Year: 2022
Publisher:  Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2022, 207, 114141
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V. Myndrul, L. E. Coy, N. Babayevska, V. Zahorodna, V. Balitskyi, I. Baginskiy, O. Gogotsi, M. Bechelany, M. T. Giardi, I. Iatsunskyi

Continuous painless glucose monitoring is the greatest desire of more than 422 million diabetics worldwide. Therefore, new non-invasive and convenient approaches to glucose monitoring are more in demand than other tests for microanalytical diagnostic tools. Besides, blood glucose detection can be replaced by continuous glucose monitoring of other human biological fluids (e.g. sweat) collected non-invasively. In this study, a skin-attachable and stretchable electrochemical enzymatic sensor based on ZnO tetrapods (TPs) and a new class of 2D materials - transition metal carbides, known as MXene, was developed and their electroanalytical behavior was tailored for continuous detection glucose in sweat. The high specific area of ZnO TPs and superior electrical conductivity of MXene (Ti3C2Tx) nanoflakes enabled to produce enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor with enhanced sensitivity in sweat sample (29 μA mM1 cm2), low limit of detection (LOD ≈ 17 μM), broad linear detection range (LDR = 0.05–0.7 mM) that satisfices glucose detection application in human sweat, and advanced mechanical stability (up to 30% stretching) of the template. The developed skin-attachable stretchable electrochemical electrodes allowed to monitor the level of glucose in sweat while sugar uptake and during physical activity. Continuous in vivo monitoring of glucose in sweat obtained during 60 min correlated well with data collected by a conventional amperometric blood glucometer in vitro mode. Our findings demonstrate the high potential of developed ZnO/MXene skin-attachable stretchable sensors for biomedical applications on a daily basis.

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