Thus, water splitting, artificial photosynthesis, hydrogen evolution reactions, in other words the generation of chemical fuels from water and sunlight is one of the key scientific challenges for the 21st century. Hydrogen technologies are among the key innovations which Europe will have to rely on in order to reach its target of a low carbon economy. Hydrogen is an energy carrier like electricity, but with the unequalled advantage of being storable in various forms and transportable in various ways. The most challenging task in photocatalytic water splitting is to develop efficient photocatalysts which are capable of absorbing sunlight in order to split water (Schematic representation of band energies, charge transfer and water splitting processes in TiO2/SiNP for n- and p-type Si are shown in the picture below).
- Si nanopillars covered with TiO2 film in the process of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) possess enhanced PEC properties for solar water splitting and good stability
- Graphene-ZnO multilayers fabricated by ALD and Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) methods could be applied for efficient photoelectrode material
- 2D carbides materials (NbC) have shown excellent anti-corrosive and catalytic properties for hydrogen production.