The aim of our work was the synthesis of ZnO nano- and microparticles and to study the effect of shapes and sizes on cytotoxicity towards normal and cancer cells and antibacterial activity toward two kinds of bacteria. We fabricated ZnO nano- and microparticles through facile chemical and physical routes. The crystal structure, morphology, textural properties, and photoluminescent properties were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopies, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The obtained ZnO structures were highly crystalline and monodispersed with intensive green emission. ZnO NPs and NRs showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus compared to microparticles due to their high specific surface area. However, the ZnO HSs at higher concentrations also strongly inhibited bacterial growth. S. aureus strain was more sensitive to ZnO particles than the E. coli. ZnO NPs and NRs were more harmful to cancer cell lines than to normal ones at the same concentration.