Structural Characterization of a Dimer of RNA Duplexes Composed of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats: a Novel Architecture of RNA Quadruplexes

Publish Year: 2016
Publisher:  Nucleic Acids Research, 2016, 44(5):2409-16
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D. Gudanis, Ł. Popenda, K. Szpotkowski, R. Kierzek, Z. Gdaniec
Fragile X syndrome and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) are neurodegenerative disorders caused by the pathogenic expansion of CGG triplet repeats in the FMR1 gene. FXTAS is likely to be caused by a 'toxic' gain-of-function of the FMR1 mRNA. We provide evidence for the existence of a novel quadruplex architecture comprising CGG repeats. The 8-bromoguanosine ((Br)G)-modified molecule GC(Br)GGCGGC forms a duplex in solution and self-associates via the major groove to form a four-stranded, antiparallel (GC(Br)GGCGGC)4 RNA quadruplex with (Br)G3:G6:(Br)G3:G6 tetrads sandwiched between mixed G:C:G:C tetrads. Self-association of Watson-Crick duplexes to form a four-stranded structure has previously been predicted; however, no experimental evidence was provided. This novel four-stranded RNA structure was characterized using a variety of experimental methods, such as native gel electrophoresis, NMR spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

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