A series of TiO2-ZnO binary oxide systems with various molar ratios of TiO2 and ZnO were prepared using a sol-gel method. The influence of the molar ratio and temperature of calcination on the particle sizes, morphology, crystalline structure, surface composition, porous structure parameters, and thermal stability of the final hybrids was investigated. Additionally, to confirm the presence of characteristic surface groups of the material, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was applied. It was found that the crystalline structure, porous structure parameters, and thermal stability were determined by the molar ratio of TiO2 to ZnO and the calcination process for the most part. A key element of the study was an evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2-ZnO hybrids with respect to the decomposition of C.I. Basic Blue 9, C.I. Basic Red 1, and C.I. Basic Violet 10 dyes. It was found that the TiO2-ZnO material obtained with a molar ratio of TiO2:ZnO = 9:1 and calcined at 600 °C demonstrates high photocatalytic activity in the degradation of the three organic dyes when compared with pristine TiO2. Moreover, an attempt was made to describe equilibrium aspects by applying the Langmuir-Hinsherlwood equation.