NKX2-5 Variant in Two Siblings with Thyroid Hemiagenesis

Rok publikacji: 2022
Wydawca:  Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3414
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E. Szczepanek-Parulska, B. Budny, M. Borowczyk, I. Zhukov, K. Szutkowski, K. Zawadzka, R. Tahir, A. Minczykowski, M. Niedziela, M. Ruchała
Thyroid hemiagenesis (THA) is an inborn absence of one thyroid lobe of largely unknown etiopathogenesis. The aim of the study was to reveal genetic factors responsible for thyroid maldevelopment in two siblings with THA. None of the family members presented with congenital heart defect. The samples were subjected to whole-exome sequencing (WES) (Illumina, TruSeq Exome Enrichment Kit, San Diego, CA 92121 USA). An ultra-rare variant c.839C>T (p.Pro280Leu) in NKX2-5 gene (NM_004387.4) was identified in both affected children and an unaffected father. In the mother, the variant was not present. This variant is reported in population databases with 0.0000655 MAF (GnomAD v3, dbSNP rs761596254). The affected amino acid position is moderately conserved (positive scores in PhyloP: 1.364 and phastCons: 0.398). Functional prediction algorithms showed deleterious impact (dbNSFP v4.1, FATHMM, SIFT) or benign (CADD, PolyPhen-2, Mutation Assessor). According to ACMG criteria, variant is classified as having uncertain clinical significance. For the first time, NKX2-5 gene variants were found in two siblings with THA, providing evidence for its potential contribution to the pathogenesis of this type of thyroid dysgenesis. The presence of the variant in an unaffected parent, carrier of p.Pro280Leu variant, suggests potential contribution of yet unidentified additional factors determining the final penetrance and expression.

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