Artur Jędrzak,1,2 Bartosz F Grześkowiak,1 Klaudia Golba,1 Emerson Coy,1 Karol Synoradzki,1,3 Stefan Jurga,1 Teofil Jesionowski,2 Radosław Mrówczyński1
1NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poznan PL-61614, Poland; 2Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan PL-60965, Poland; 3Institute of Molecular Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan PL-60179, Poland
Correspondence: Radosław Mrówczyński
NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Wszechnicy Piastowskiej 3, Poznan PL-61614, Poland
Introduction: We present a multimodal nanoplatforms for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro. The nanoplatforms are based on polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) and spheres (sMAG) with PAMAM dendrimers and functionalized with NHS-PEG-Mal (N-hydroxysuccinimide–polyethylene glycol–maleimide) linker, which allows their functionalization with a folic acid derivative. The nanomaterials bearing a folic acid-targeting moiety show high efficiency in killing cancer cells in the dual chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) of the liver cancer cells in comparison to modalities performed separately.
Materials and Methods: All materials are characterized in detail with transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, zeta potential and magnetic measurements. Also, photothermal properties were determined under irradiation of nanoparticles with laser beam of 2 W/cm2. The nontoxicity of nanoparticles with doxorubicin and without was checked by WST and LIVE/DEAD assay. Those tests were also used to evaluate materials bearing folic acid and anticancer drug in combined chemo- and photothermal therapy of HCC. Further, the generation of reactive oxygen species profile was also evaluated using flow cytometry test.
Results: Both NPs and sMAG showed high photothermal properties. Nevertheless, the higher photothermal response was found for magnetic spheres. Materials of concentration above 10 μg/mL reveal that their activity was comparable to free doxorubicin. It is worth highlighting that a functionalized magnetic sphere with DOXO more strongly affected the HepG2 cells than smaller functionalized nanoparticles with DOXO in the performed chemotherapy. This can be attributed to the larger size of particles and a different method of drug distribution. In the further stage, both materials were assessed in combined chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) which revealed that magnetic spheres were also more effective in this modality than smaller nanoparticles.
Conclusion: Here, we present two types of nanomaterials (nanoparticles and spheres) based on polydopamine and PAMAM dendrimers g.5.0 functionalized with NHS-PEG-Mal linker terminated with folic acid for in vitro hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. The obtained materials can serve as efficient agents for dual chemo- and photothermal therapy of HCC. We also proved that PDA-coated magnetic spheres were more efficient in therapies based on near-infrared irradiation because determined cell viabilities for those materials are lower than for the same concentrations of nanomaterials based on small magnetic nanoparticles.