Phospholipids are the main components of biological membranes. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a cationic surfactant on phospholipid structure and dynamics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and dielectric relaxation (DRS) spectroscopies as well as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with synchrotron radiation have been used to analyse the structure of fully hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) in the presence of a quaternary ammonium surfactant: (benzyloxymethyl) dodecyldimethylammoniumchloride (BzMDDAC). The presence of the surfactant caused changes in the temperature of the DMPC phase transition, as revealed using FTIR and DRS measurements. This change results from the disappearance of the multilamellar phase of DMPC and the formation of the unilamellar (most likely bicellar) phase, as indicated by the SAXS results.