Chemical etching of stainless steel 301 for improving performance of electrochemical capacitors in aqueous electrolyte

Rok publikacji: 2015
Wydawca:  Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 279, 555-562
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P. Jeżowski, M. Nowicki, M. Grzeszkowiak, R. Czajka, F. Béguin
The main purpose of the study was to increase the surface roughness of stainless steel 301 current collectors by etching, in order to improve the electrochemical performance of electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLC) in 1 mol L−1 lithium sulphate electrolyte. Etching was realized in 1:3:30 (HNO3:HCl:H2O) solution with times varying up to 10 min. For the considered 15 μm thick foil and a mass loss around 0.4 wt.%, pitting was uniform, with diameter of pits ranging from 100 to 300 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed an increase of average surface roughness (Ra) from 5 nm for the as-received stainless steel foil to 24 nm for the pitted material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy realized on EDLCs with coated electrodes either on as-received or pitted foil in 1 mol L−1 Li2SO4 gave equivalent distributed resistance (EDR) of 8 Ω and 2 Ω, respectively, demonstrating a substantial improvement of collector/electrode interface after pitting. Correlatively, the EDLCs with pitted collector displayed a better charge propagation and low ohmic losses even at relatively high current of 20 A g−1. Hence, chemical pitting of stainless steel current collectors is an appropriate method for optimising the performance of EDLCs in neutral aqueous electrolyte.

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