In this review, significant applications of lanthanides and their compounds in bone tissue engineering are described, with an emphasis on coordination compounds based on wide variety of ligands, crystalline structure and their properties, stability as well as cytotoxicity. The current challenges and several scientific discoveries related to the use of lanthanides in bone disease treatment are summarized. The influence of lanthanide compounds with different ligands on the bone remodeling cycle and their potential application in the treatment and prevention of bone diseases is presented. According to the knowledge gained so far numerous applications of lanthanides cause that these elements and their compounds especially the lanthanide-based nanomaterials were tested in bone disorders therapy: radiation therapies, drug delivery systems, biosensing, bioimaging, as well as in implants, and tissue engineering. Revealing was also the structural studies which indicated why Ln-doped Hydroxyapatite was an excellent treatment for orthopedic injuries.